Nephrotic Syndrome and Nephritic Syndromes

In exam, you can easily search for this info but it takes time. So, I put here most important to help you remember easily.

Nephrotic Syndromes:

TypeMinimal Change Disease
[MCD]
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis [FSGS]Membranous Glomerulonephritis MembranoProliferative Glomerulonephritis
[MPGN]
CausesNSAIDS
Leukemia
Lithium
Lymphoma, Hodkin’s
Pamidronate
HIV
Heroin
Sickle Cell Disease
Obesiy
IFN alfa
Bisphosphonates
Malignancy
NSAIDS
Gold salts, Penicillamine
Hepatitis B, C
SLE
Thyroiditis
Malignancy
Hepatitis B, C
SLE
Cryoglobulinemia
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
Effacement of foot processes Effacement of foot processes in PrimarySubepithelial depositsMesangial deposit
BiopsySclerosisThickened capillary loopsTram Track
Low complement
RxSteroids
Cyclophosphamide
Steroids
Cyclosporine
Steroids
Cyclophosphamide
Steroids
Cyclophosphamide

Meltzer Triad is seen in CRYOGLOBULINEMIA: Fatigue, Arthralgia, Purpura

Tramtrack seen in MPGN.

Tram Lines are seen in Bronchiectasis.

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Nephritis: Dysmorphic red cells and red cell casts in the urine and Cola colored urine is seen in all of these.

Type Post Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
[PSGN
]
Ig A NephropathyHenoch-Schonlein Purpura/
Ig A vasculitis
Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
[RPGN
]
Cause/symptomsStrep infection or
skin infection
Exercise or URTIAbdominal Pain
Arthritis
Purpura
Goodpasture=
Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease
Low complement
Immunofl.
Microscopy
Lumpy Bumpy on microscopeLinear deposition of IgG along the glomerular capillaries.
BiopsyGlobular deposits of IgA in the mesangium on biopsyDo biopsy of the purpuraCrescents on biopsy
The most common cause of glomerulonephritis in adults in the developed worldAKI progresses rapidly
RxAntibioticsACEI
Steroids
SupportPlasmapheresis, Corticosteroids, and Cyclophosphamide.

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The complement system:

It is a group of proteins that work together to fight infection in the body. They respond to bacteria, viruses or other foreign substances in our body. They work with WBC. In individuals with PNH, the complement system mistakenly destroys “PNH” blood cells due to the lack of GPI-anchored proteins that normally protect blood cells from the activity of the complement system.

Low complement levels are seen in:

Low CEMP<–Tip to remember

L-Lupus, Liver failure

C- Cryoglobulinemia

E- Endocarditis

M- MembranoProliferative Glomerulonephritis

P- Post Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis, Parvovirus infection, Pancreatitis [Autoimmune only]

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SLE has three letters, remember that C3 is more lower than C4 in SLE.

CRYO has 4 letters, remember that C4 is more lower than C3 in Cryoglobulinemia.

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